Structural Response of Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Deep Beam Using Finite Element Method

Document Type : Regular Article


1 Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering and Technology, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria

2 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Ilorin, Nigeria


Analysis of reinforced concrete deep beam is based on simplified approximate method due to the complexity of the exact analysis. The complexity is due to a number of parameters affecting its response. To evaluate some of this parameters, finite element study of the structural behavior of the reinforced self-compacting concrete deep beam was carried out using Abaqus finite element modeling tool. The model was validated against experimental data from the literature. The parametric effects of varied concrete compressive strength, vertical web reinforcement ratio and horizontal web reinforcement ratio on the beam were tested on eight (8) different specimens under four points loads. The results of the validation work showed good agreement with the experimental studies. The parametric study revealed that the concrete compressive strength most significantly influenced the specimens’ response with the average of 41.1% and 49 % increment in the diagonal cracking and ultimate load respectively due to doubling of concrete compressive strength. Although the increase in horizontal web reinforcement ratio from 0.31 % to 0.63 % lead to average of 6.24 % increment on the diagonal cracking load, it does not influence the ultimate strength and the load-deflection response of the beams. Similar variation in vertical web reinforcement ratio leads to an average of 2.4 % and 15 % increment in cracking and ultimate load respectively with no appreciable effect on the load-deflection response.


Google Scholar


Main Subjects

[1]     ACI Committee 318. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-14) and Commentary (ACI 318R-14). 2014. doi:10.1016/0262-5075(85)90032-6.
[2]     Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures: Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings. British Standards Institution; 2004.
[3]     Venir R, Russo G, Pauletta M. Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams- Shear Strength Model and Design Formula. ACI Struct J 2005;102:429–37. doi:10.14359/14414.
[4]     Al-Khafaji J, Al-Shaarbaf I, Sultan WH. Shear behavior of self compacting concrete deep beams. J Eng Sustain Dev 2014;18:36–58.
[5]     Okamura H, Ouchi M. Self-Compacting Concrete. J Adv Concr Technol 2003;1:5–15. doi:10.3151/jact.1.5.
[6]     EFNARC: European Federation Dedicated to Specialist Construction Chemicals and Concrete Systems, Surrey 2002.
[7]     Akinpelu MA, Odeyemi SO, Olafusi OS, Muhammed FZ. Evaluation of splitting tensile and compressive strength relationship of self-compacting concrete. J King Saud Univ - Eng Sci 2017. doi:10.1016/j.jksues.2017.01.002.
[8]     Choi YW, Lee HK, Chu SB, Cheong SH, Jung WY. Shear Behavior and Performance of Deep Beams Made with Self-Compacting Concrete. Int J Concr Struct Mater 2012;6:65–78. doi:10.1007/s40069-012-0007-y.
[9]     Van Itterbeeck P, Cauberg N, Parmentier B, Van Gysel A, Vandewalle L. Shear Capacity of Self-Compacting Concrete. Proc. Fifth North Am. Conf. Des. Use Self-Consolidating Concr. (on cd-rom), Iowa State University and ACBM; 2013, p. 1–10.
[10]    Yaw LT, Osei JB, Asamoah MA. On The Non-Linear Finite Element Modelling of Self-Compacting Concrete Beams. J Struct Transp Stud 2017;2.
[11]    S. AM, R. KK. Analytical Studies on Hybrid Self Compacting Concrete Deep Beam Using Fem Software. Int J Innov Res Sci Eng Technol 2015;4:71–7.
[12]    Schlaich J, Schäfer K, Jennewein M. Toward a consistent design of structural concrete. Spec Report, CEB (Comité Euro Int Du Béton) 1987;32:74–150.
[13]    Liang QQ, Uy B, Steven GP. Performance-Based Optimization for Strut-Tie Modeling of Structural Concrete. J Struct Eng 2002;128:815–23. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2002)128:6(815).
[14]    Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual, Version 6.12, Volume III: Materials. Dassault Systèmes Simulia Corp., Providence, RI, USA. 2012.
[15]    Abaqus Theory Manual, Version 6.12. Dassault Systemes Simulia Corp., Providence, RI, USA. 2012.
[16]    Mohamed AR, Shoukry MS, Saeed JM. Prediction of the behavior of reinforced concrete deep beams with web openings using the finite element method. Alexandria Eng J 2014;53:329–39. doi:10.1016/j.aej.2014.03.001.
[17]    Metwally IM. Nonlinear analysis of concrete deep beam reinforced with gfrp bars using finite element method. Malaysian J Civ Eng 2014;26:224–50.
[18]    Genikomsou AS, Polak MA. Damaged plasticity modelling of concrete in finite element analysis of reinforced concrete slabs. 9th Int. Conf. Fract. Mech. Concr. Concr. Struct. Univ. Calif., 2016, p. 22–5.
[19]    Euro CEBC. Comité Euro-International du Béton, CEB-FIP-model Code , “Design code,” London, Thomas Telford. 1990.
[20]    Sümer Y, Aktas M. Defining parameters for concrete damage plasticity model. Chall J Struct Mech 2015;1:149–55.
[21]    Demir A, Ozturk H, Dok G. 3D numerical modeling of RC deep beam behavior by nonlinear finite element analysis. Disaster Sci Eng 2016;2:13–8.
[22]    Michał S, Andrzej W. Calibration of the CDP model parameters in Abaqus. World Congr. Adv. Struct. Eng. Mech. (ASEM 15), Incheon Korea, August 25 -29., 2015.
[23]    T. J, T. O. Identification of Parameters of Concrete. Found Civ Environ Eng 2005:53–69.
[24]    Mohammadhassani M, Jumaat MZ, Ashour A, Jameel M. Failure modes and serviceability of high strength self compacting concrete deep beams. Eng Fail Anal 2011;18:2272–81. doi:10.1016/j.engfailanal.2011.08.003.