Performance Based Review and Fine-Tuning of TRM-Concrete Bond Strength Existing Models

Document Type : Regular Article


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran

2 M.Sc. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

4 Professor of Structural Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Textile reinforced mortars (TRMs) are new composite materials which were considered as a proper alternative for fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs) to strengthen various structural elements. In comparison to FRPs, the TRMs have more fire resistance, more environmental consistency and are safer the structural elements because of their better bond to substrate and various failure modes. There are a lot of existing models to calculate the bond strength between TRMs and concrete substrate. But, most of them originated from the FRP-concrete bond models and are not accurate enough to estimate the TRM-concrete bond strength. In this paper, new TRM-concrete bond models were calibrated to predict the bond strength between various TRM composites and the concrete substrate. To achieve this goal, a database including 221 experimental direct shear tests were compiled and a simple existing model was selected to be calibrated via soft computing techniques. It was found that the presented novel models could be accurately utilized to anticipate the TRM-concrete bond strength with various types of fibers and different geometrical features with R value of 0.6909 and NMAE error value of 12.62%.


Main Subjects

[1]     Daneshvar MH, Saffarian M, Jahangir H, Sarmadi H. Damage identification of structural systems by modal strain energy and an optimization-based iterative regularization method. Eng Comput 2022:1–21.
[2]     Jahangir H, Khatibinia M, Mokhtari Masinaei M. Damage Detection in Prestressed Concrete Slabs Using Wavelet Analysis of Vibration Responses in the Time Domain. J Rehabil Civ Eng 2022;10:37–63.
[3]     Jahangir H, Khatibinia M, Kavousi M. Application of Contourlet Transform in Damage Localization and Severity Assessment of Prestressed Concrete Slabs. J Soft Comput Civ Eng 2021;5:39–67.
[4]     Bagheri M, Chahkandi A, Jahangir H. Seismic Reliability Analysis of RC Frames Rehabilitated by Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymers. Int J Civ Eng 2019.
[5]     Jahangir H, Esfahani MR. Bond Behavior Investigation Between Steel Reinforced Grout Composites and Masonry Substrate. Iran J Sci Technol Trans Civ Eng 2022.
[6]     Kamgar R, Naderpour H, Komeleh HE, Jakubczyk-Gałczyńska A, Jankowski R. A proposed soft computing model for ultimate strength estimation of FRP-confined concrete cylinders. Appl Sci 2020;10.
[7]     Tahir M, Wang Z, Ali KM, Isleem HF. Shear behavior of concrete beams reinforced with CFRP sheet strip stirrups using wet-layup technique. Structures 2019;22:43–52.
[8]     Cerniauskas G, Tetta Z, Bournas DA, Bisby LA. Concrete confinement with TRM versus FRP jackets at elevated temperatures. Mater Struct Constr 2020;53:1–14.
[9]     Jahangir H, Esfahani MR. Numerical Study of Bond – Slip Mechanism in Advanced Externally Bonded Strengthening Composites. KSCE J Civ Eng 2018;22:4509–18.
[10]   Escrig C, Gil L, Bernat-Maso E, Puigvert F. Experimental and analytical study of reinforced concrete beams shear strengthened with different types of textile-reinforced mortar. Constr Build Mater 2015;83.
[11]   Raoof SM, Koutas LN, Bournas DA. Bond between textile-reinforced mortar (TRM) and concrete substrates: Experimental investigation. Compos Part B Eng 2016;98:350–61.
[12]   Trapko T. Fibre reinforced cementitious matrix confined concrete elements. Mater Des 2013;44:382–91.
[13]   Leone M, Aiello MA, Balsamo A, Carozzi FG, Ceroni F, Corradi M, et al. Glass fabric reinforced cementitious matrix: Tensile properties and bond performance on masonry substrate. Compos Part B Eng 2017;127:196–214.
[14]   De Santis S, Carozzi FG, de Felice G, Poggi C. Test methods for Textile Reinforced Mortar systems. Compos Part B Eng 2017;127.
[15]   Ahmed ER, Mohamed-Amine A, Radhouane M. Bond Performance of Basalt Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Bars to Concrete. J Compos Constr 2015;19:4014050.
[16]   D’Ambrisi A, Feo L, Focacci F. Experimental analysis on bond between PBO-FRCM strengthening materials and concrete. Compos Part B Eng 2013;44:524–32.
[17]   Wu Y, Zhou Z, Yang Q, Chen W. On shear bond strength of FRP-concrete structures. Eng Struct 2010;32:897–905.
[18]   Neubauer U, Rostasy. FS. Design aspects of concrete structures strengthened with externally bonded CFRP-plates. Proc. SEVENTH Int. Conf. Struct. FAULTS REPAIR, 8 JULY 1997., CONCRETE AND COMPOSITES; 1997.
[19]   Tanaka T. Shear resisting mechanism of reinforced concrete beams with CFS as shear reinforcement. Hokkaido University, Japan, 1996.
[20]   Maeda T, Asano Y, Sato Y, Ueda T, Kakuta Y. A study on bond mechanism of carbon fiber sheet. Non-Metallic Reinf. Concr. Struct. Proc. 3rd Int. Symp., Tokyo, Japan: Japan Concrete Institute; 1997, p. 279–85.
[21]   Iorfida A, Verre S, Candamano S, Ombres L. Tensile and Direct Shear Responses of Basalt-Fibre Reinforced Mortar Based Materials, 2018, p. 544–52.
[22]   Awani O, Refai A El, El-Maaddawy T. Bond characteristics of carbon fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix in double shear tests. Constr Build Mater 2015;101:39–49.
[23]   D’Antino T, Carloni C, Sneed LH, Pellegrino C. Matrix-fiber bond behavior in PBO FRCM composites: A fracture mechanics approach. Eng Fract Mech 2014;117.
[24]   Tran CTM, Stitmannaithum B, Ueda T. Investigation of The Bond Behaviour Between PBO-FRCM Strengthening Material and Concrete. J Adv Concr Technol 2014;12:545–57.
[25]   D’Antino T, Pellegrino C, Carloni C, Sneed LH, Giacomin G. Experimental analysis of the bond behavior of glass, carbon, and steel FRCM composites. Key Eng. Mater., vol. 624, 2015, p. 371–8.
[26]   Sneed LH, D’Antino T, Carloni C, Pellegrino C. A comparison of the bond behavior of PBO-FRCM composites determined by double-lap and single-lap shear tests. Cem Concr Compos 2015;64:37–48.
[27]   Ombres L. Analysis of the bond between Fabric Reinforced Cementitious Mortar (FRCM) strengthening systems and concrete. Compos Part B Eng 2015;69:418–26.
[28]   D’Antino T, Sneed LH, Carloni C, Pellegrino C. Influence of the substrate characteristics on the bond behavior of PBO FRCM-concrete joints. Constr Build Mater 2015;101:838–50.
[29]   Raoof SM, Koutas LN, Bournas DA. Bond between textile-reinforced mortar (TRM) and concrete substrates: Experimental investigation. Compos Part B Eng 2016;98:350–61.
[30]   Carloni C, Antino TD, Sneed LH, Pellegrino C. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Single-Lap Direct Shear Tests of FRCM-Concrete Joints Using a Cohesive Damaged Contact Approach 2018;22:1–10.
[31]   Sneed LH, D’Antino T, Carloni C, Pellegrino C. A comparison of the bond behavior of PBO-FRCM composites determined by double-lap and single-lap shear tests. Cem Concr Compos 2015;64:37–48.
[32]   Ombres L, Verre S. Experimental and Numerical Investigation on the Steel Reinforced Grout (SRG) Composite-to-Concrete Bond. J Compos Sci  2020;4.
[33]   Carozzi FG, Arboleda D, Asce AM, Poggi C, Nanni A, Asce F. Direct Shear Bond Tests of Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix Materials 2020;24.
[34]   Gonzalez-libreros J, Antino TD, Pellegrino C. Experimental Behavior of Glass-FRCM Composites Applied onto Masonry and Concrete Substrates 2017;747:390–7.
[35]   Gonzalez J, Antino TD, Pellegrino C. Bond behaviour of basalt FRCM composites applied on RC elements 2015.
[36]   Sneed LH, D’Antino T, Carloni C. Investigation of Bond Behavior of Polyparaphenylene Benzobisoxazole Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Related papers Investigation of Bond Behavior of PBO Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix Composite-Concrete Interface n.d.
[37]   Sneed LH, Verre S, Carloni C, Ombres L. Flexural behavior of RC beams strengthened with steel-FRCM composite. Eng Struct 2016;127:686–99.
[38]   Zou X, Sneed LH, Antino TD, Carloni C. Analytical Bond-Slip Model for Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix-Concrete Joints Based on Strain Measurements 2019;31.
[39]   Zou X, Sneed LH. Bond Behavior Between Steel Fiber Reinforced Polymer (SRP) and Concrete. Int J Concr Struct Mater 2020;14:46.
[40]   Younis A, Ebead U. A study on the bond behavior of different FRCM systems 2018;09003:1–5.
[41]   Younis A, Ebead U. Bond characteristics of different FRCM systems. Constr Build Mater 2018;175:610–20.
[42]   D’Antino T, Gonzalez J, Pellegrino C, Carloni C, Sneed LH. Experimental investigation of glass and carbon FRCM composite materials applied onto concrete supports 2016;847:60–7.
[43]   Jahangir H, Bagheri M, Delavari SMJ. Cyclic Behavior Assessment of Steel Bar Hysteretic Dampers Using Multiple Nonlinear Regression Approach. Iran J Sci Technol Trans Civ Eng 2021;45:1227–51.
[44]   Rezazadeh Eidgahee D, Jahangir H, Solatifar N, Fakharian P, Rezaeemanesh M. Data-driven estimation models of asphalt mixtures dynamic modulus using ANN, GP and combinatorial GMDH approaches. Neural Comput Appl 2022;34:17289–314.
[45]   Isleem HF, Tayeh BA, Alaloul WS, Musarat MA, Raza A. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Finite Element (FEM) Models for GFRP-Reinforced Concrete Columns under Axial Compression. Materials (Basel) 2021;14:7172.
[46]   Ghanizadeh AR, Delaram A, Fakharian P, Armaghani DJ. Developing Predictive Models of Collapse Settlement and Coefficient of Stress Release of Sandy-Gravel Soil via Evolutionary Polynomial Regression. Appl Sci 2022;12:9986.
[47]   Naderpour H, Rezazadeh Eidgahee D, Fakharian P, Rafiean AH, Kalantari SM. A new proposed approach for moment capacity estimation of ferrocement members using Group Method of Data Handling. Eng Sci Technol an Int J 2020;23:382–91.
[48]   Naderpour H, Sharei M, Fakharian P, Heravi MA. Shear Strength Prediction of Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Using ANN, GMDH-NN and GEP. Soft Comput Civ Eng 2022;6:66–87.
  • Receive Date: 28 June 2022
  • Revise Date: 20 October 2022
  • Accept Date: 16 November 2022
  • First Publish Date: 16 November 2022